Azure Databricks – What is it costing me?

A customer wanted to know the total cost of running Azure Databricks for them. They couldn’t understand what DBU (Databricks Units) was, given that is the pricing unit for Azure Databricks.

I will attempt to clarify DBU in this post.

DBU is just really an abstraction not related to any amount of compute or compute metrics. At the same time, it changes with the following factors:

  1. When there is a change in the kind of machine you are running the cluster on
  2. When there is change in the kind of workload (e.g. Jobs, All Purpose)
  3. The tier / capabilities of the workload (Standard / Premium)
  4. The kind of runtime (e.g. with or without Photon)

So, the DBUs really measure the consumption of resources. It is billed on a per second basis. The monetary value of these DBUs is called $DBU and is determined by a $ rate charged per DBU. Pricing rate per DBU is available here.

You are paying DBUs for the software that Databricks has made available for processing your Big Data workload. The hardware component needed to run the cluster is charged directly by Azure.

When you visit the Azure Pricing Calculator and look at the pricing for Azure Databricks, you would see that there are two distinct sections – one for compute and another for Databricks DBUs that specifies this rate.

The total price of running an Azure Databricks cluster is a combination of the above two sections.

Let us now understand if we are running a cluster of 6 machines what is the total cost likely to be:

For the All Purpose Compute running in West US in Standard tier with D3 v2, the total cost for compute (in PAYG model) is likely to be USD 1,222/ month.

From the calculator you can see that DBU consumption is 0.75 DBU with a rate of USD 0.4/ hr. So, the total cost of running 6 D3 v2 machines in the cluster will be $ 219 * 6 = $ 1,314.

The total cost hence would be USD 2,536.

From an optimization perspective, you can reduce your hardware compute by making reservations e.g. 1 yr or 3 yrs in Azure. DBUs from the Azure calculator doesn’t have any upfront commitment discounts available. However, they are available if you contact Databricks and request for discount on a fixed commitment.

Constructing a PySpark DataFrame Dynamically

Spark provides a lot of connectors to load data from various formats. Whether it is a CSV or JSON or Parquet you can use the magic of “”.

However, there are times when you would like to create a DataFrame dynamically using code. The one use case that I was presented with was to create a dataframe out of a very twisted incoming JSON from an API. So, I decided to parse the JSON manually and create a dataframe.

The approach we are going to use is to create a list of structured Row types and we are using PySpark for the task. The steps are as follows:

  1. Define the custom row class
personRow = Row("name","age")

2. Create an empty list to populate later

community = []

3. Create row objects with the specific data in them. In my case, this data is coming from the response that we get from calling the API.

qr = personRow(name, age)

4. Append the row objects to the list. In our program, we are using a loop to append multiple Row objects to the list.


5. Define the schema using StructType

person_schema = StructType([ \
                              StructField("name", StringType(), True), \
                              StructField("age", IntegerType(), True), \


6. Create the dataframe using createDataFrame. The two parameters required is the data and schema to applied.

communityDF = spark.createDataFrame(community, person_schema)

Using the steps above, we are able to create a dataframe for use in Spark applications dynamically.

Copy Data in Azure Databricks Table from one region to another

One of our customers had a requirement of copying data that was locked in an Azure Databricks Table in a specific region (let’s say this is eastus region). The tables were NOT configured as Delta tables in the originating region and a subset of personnel had access to both the regions.

However, the analysts were using another region (let’s say this is westus region) as it was properly configured with appropriate permissions. The requirement was to copy the Azure Databricks Table from eastus region to westus region. After a little exploration, we couldn’t find a direct/ simple solution to copy data from one Databricks region to another.

One of the first thoughts that we had was to use Azure Data Factory with the Databricks Delta connector. This would be the simplest as we would simply need a Copy Data activity in the pipeline with two linked services. The source would be a Delta Lake linked service to eastus tables and the sink would be another Delta Lake linked service to westus table. This solution faced two practical issues:

  1. The source table was not a Delta table. This prevented the use of Delta Lake linked service as source.
  2. When sink for copy activity is a not a blob or ADLS, it requires us to use a staging storage blob. While we were able to link a staging storage blob, the connection could not be established due to authentication errors during execution. The pipeline error looked like the following:
Operation on target moveBlobToADB failed: ErrorCode=AzureDatabricksCommandError,Hit an error when running the command in Azure Databricks. Error details: Unable to access container adf-staging in account using anonymous credentials, and no credentials found for them in the configuration. Caused by: Unable to access container adf-staging in account using anonymous credentials, and no credentials found for them in the configuration. Caused by: Public access is not permitted on this storage account..

On digging deeper, this requirement is documented as a prerequisite. We wanted to use the Access Key method but it requires the keys to be added into Azure Databricks cluster configuration. We didn’t have access to modify the ADB cluster configuration.

To work with this, we found the following alternatives:

  1. Use Databricks notebook to read data from non-Delta Tables in Databricks. The data can be stored in a staging Blob Storage.
  2. To upload the data into the destination table, we will again need to use a Databricks notebook as we are not able to modify the cluster configuration.

Here is the solution we came up with:

In this architecture, the ADB 1 notebook is reading data from Databricks Table A.1 and storing it in the staging blob storage in the parquet format. Only specific users are allowed to access eastus data tables, so the notebook has to be run in their account. The linked service configuration of the Azure Databricks notebook requires us to manually specify: workspace URL, cluster ID and personal access token. All the data transfer is in the same region so no bandwidth charges accrue.

Next the Databricks ADB 2 notebook is accesses the parquet file in the blob storage and loads the data in the Databricks Delta Table A.2.

The above sequence is managed by the Azure Data Factory and we are using Run ID as filenames (declared as parameters) on the storage account. This pipeline is configured to be run daily.

The daily run of the pipeline would lead to a lot of data in the Azure Storage blob as we don’t have any step that cleans up the staging files. We have used the Azure Storage Blob lifecycle management to delete all files not modified for 15 days to be deleted automatically.

Testing SOAP APIs with Telerik Test Studio

The legacy SOAP based web services/ APIs are still in use at a lot of organisations. While Telerik Test Studio has direct support for REST based APIs, testing SOAP web services requires a few additional steps.

In the short video below, we share how we can test SOAP based APIs in Test Studio:

The three things needed include:

  1. A Test Oracle to encapsulate web services call: Built easily with Visual Studio
  2. Coded Steps in Test Studio
  3. Data Driven tests for testing various inputs

The transcript of the video is as follows:

Can Test studio test APIs? And i think most of you know the answer that it does support testing REST APIs. Recently one of the customers asked me if Telerik Test Studio can be used for automation of SOAP-based web services and the answer to that is it can be done in telerik test studio using coded tests.

In this video we will see how we can test SOAP based web services using Test Studio. The soap web service that i am using for testing is a publicly available service that converts digits to numbers. So in this web service i’m going to use the number and what it allows me to do is enter a number so let’s enter 789 and by invoking this i get the the words or the digits converted into words as seven eighty nine. So this is the web service that i’m going to test back in the test studio.

I have authored a test that will feed in various digits and verify if the web service returns the correct words for those digits. For the same i have put in some local data with digits in one column and in words in the second column. So this is going to be a data driven test. Let’s test this with our script. I’m just starting the test with the headless chrome as execution engine because web services don’t have a UI. The test has started and you can see that i’ve got the debugger going and already the test has finished.

Now there were four iterations of this test, this being a data driven test and if you want to see the logs for each of the iterations that’s visible here as well. In iteration number one you will notice the overall result is pass. In fact here it shows we’re using chrome headless version and our test was successful in iteration number two where we had put in two three eight nine the result is fail and the failure information is also mentioned here. Well we were expecting the web service to return two hundred and eighty nine but the web service actually returned two thousand three hundred and eight nine not eighty nine. So this actually indicates a failure on the assertion. Well the test continued because we have marked this step as continue on failure. Iteration number three has result as pass wherein we passed in a single digit 4 and we also got back the same value which is four. Iteration or the last iteration here is checking for digits 10 and inwords it should also be ten and once again the overall result is pass. So here you can see its result is pass but your overall result is a fail because one of the iterations here did actually fail.

So in the next few minutes we will see how we had created this SOAP test in telerik test studio. So to work the magic of a soap api test and it’s actually quite painless in telerik test studio. You need three things:

1. the first is a test oracle number

2. two is the coded step in test studio and

3. number three is data driving the verification

Okay let’s start with the test oracle. The test oracle is an external assembly that you are going to use within test studio inside your script but this assembly is going to be created by someone else. So what i had gotten done was to call the SOAP API using a visual studio function of adding web service reference and created that project as an assembly. Now the next step would be to add that assembly in test studio so if you go to your project and go to settings you will have a section that says script. Now within this section you will notice some assemblies that are automatically referenced here. Now if you notice this reference, this is something that has been added as a custom reference and this is where my test oracle has been created. So this assembly uses a simple function to invoke the SOAP API and provides a simple programmatic interface to invoke this soap service. So if you want to add more test oracles or external assemblies you can click on add reference and that’s what allows you to refer any .NET based assembly. So that takes care of the first step which is of getting a test article in place.

The second step is to add a coded step in my test script so you can add a coded step in test studio by using the step builder. Here where i’ve selected the common and within it there is a coded step and i can click on add step button. And this will add a coded step so that’s already done here. As you can see the coded step i am using is titled sample soap underscore coded step. In fact the code for this is available in the cs file located here. I just opened up the cs file the first thing that i need to do is to add a reference or to soap call namespace now in my function which is called as sample code underscore coded step. I am creating an instance of the object and within this i am passing in the specific digits. And finally i’m asserting if the digit that i have passed is the same as the one it should be in words.

Now the syntax here is slightly different. The syntax looks different because we are actually doing the third step in this demo which is data driving the verification. To data drive the verification as well as input values you’ve got to use the data and the specific column that you have created. So that’s what i’m using, so data and digits. And since the function towords requires me to give in an integer value i’m passing that in to the towords function of the test oracle. So conversion service and the function towords are actually coming from the test oracle. Finally i’m adding an assertion to see if the value that has been returned which is the nword value here and then the value that is there in my data driven column which is called inwords is also mentioned here. So both of them need to match up for this test to succeed. To quickly check where we had put in this data driven values we can go back to the test script and down below next to the test steps you will find the local data tab. And that’s where we can manually add these values.

This demonstration has showed you that Test Studio can be easily used to data drive SOAP based APIs automation

Enjoy watching the video and share your questions in the comments section below.

GTM Catalyst to Offer JetBrains Solutions to Enterprises in India

The development landscape is very heterogenous with multiple teams using different languages. Consequently, development teams need a myraid of solutions that support these languages and tools to accelerate the development.

Today we announce that we are partnering with JetBrains, a leading provider of development, deployment, and collaboration tools (a portfolio of 28 products). With it, GTM Catalyst Private Limited will offer local expertise and support to businesses leveraging JetBrains solutions and will also make them available for purchase in Indian Rupees.

As a JetBrains reseller channel partner, GTM Catalyst Private Limited now offers award-winning developer tools including:

1. IDE: IntelliJ IDEA, PyCharm, WebStorm, RubyMine, GoLand, AppCode, and PhpStorm.
2. Collaboration: Developers benefit from CI/CD tool TeamCity and Spaces.
3. Productivity extensions (.NET): ReSharper, dotTrace, and dotMemory.

The flagship product from JetBrains is IntelliJ IDEA, which maximizes Java developer productivity with its intelligent coding assistance and ergonomic design.

JetBrains IDE for professional developers, PyCharm can help developers using Python, the fastest growing language. For DevOps, CI/CD is supported via TeamCity which is a build management and continuous integration server from JetBrains.

Space, the recently launched all-in-one collaboration solution, provides a toolset for instant communication, software development, and team and project management.

“As a company, JetBrains has strived to make the strongest and most effective tools for software developers and teams. We are committed to supporting developers in India with our wide range of tools. We’re very happy to welcome GTM Catalyst Private Limited as our channel partner in India”, said Javed Mohamed, Regional Head – South Asia at JetBrains.

Read the press release here

Connect Telerik Reporting with Postgres SQL

One of our customers required their Telerik Reporting application to connect with their Postgres SQL (for effect, no not Microsoft SQL Server but the open source Postgres SQL).

While at the outset it may appear to be almost impossible but this task is very easy to implement with Telerik Reporting.

We accomplish this with using ADO.NET driver for Postgres SQL. The same approach can be used for other databases like MySQL.

In this post, we will discuss how to get Telerik Reporting working on .NET Core 3.1.

The first thing is to understand that Telerik Reporting is a framework that has three distinct and independent pieces:

  1. Telerik Report Definition
  2. Telerik Reporting Host Application
  3. Telerik Report Viewer

First you would want to create the Telerik Report Definition (a trdp file). To create this, we use the Telerik Reporting Designer. By default, there is nothing that supports Postgres SQL in there. So, here is the first step – Download the NgpSql driver (the MSI installer).

Once done, this will add a new datasource to the SQL Data Source of the designer:

Click on the SQL Data Source, and add a new data connection. In the dropdown, please select the new available provider “Ngpsql Data Provider”:

Following this you will need to provide the connection string. The Postgres connection string is of the following format:

Host=<server name>;Database=<db name>;Username=<username>;Password=<password>

Provide the relevant SQL statement and complete creating the data connection. The rest of the remaining steps are the same as creating a regular Telerik Report definition.

Make sure that the data is as preview in the report.

The second step, is to configure the hosting application. Since we are now working with .NET core, you can start with the .NET Core WebAPI application template and add relevant nuget packages to the same. Detailed instructions are available here:

This will make the host application provide the Telerik Reporting Service. You can check if this the reporting has been correctly setup by browsing to the URL: http://localhost/api/reports/formats

The extra step in the host application is to include an additional nuget package in the host application: Ngpsql

The next change in the host application is changing the connection string and its provider. Specify your connection string in the appSettings.json as follows:

Pay special attention to the providerName above.

Congratulations you are done!!

The third and final piece, the Telerik Report Viewer doesn’t require any changes.

Your host application (in my case a simple HTML 5 application) can now simply render the report from the host application.


How to Download Telerik Software

Login to your account at

There are two ways to download Telerik products, doing so online as laid out in the instructions below or using the Control Panel, which is available for download from your account home page.

Once logged into your account, click the “Products & Subscriptions” button (Please note, the account in the screenshot is a test account, you may have different products listed other than DevCraft Complete)

Next, click on the appropriate product

On the next screen, choose the blue “Download Installer and other resources” button

Click on the product that you wish to install

On the next page, choose to either download the product or the latest internal build of the product. Please make ensure that the License type is “Purchase” and not “Trial”

Webinar: Starting out with aPaaS

Telerik has been at forefront of providing tools for improving developer experiences. Now, a new kind of technology is on the horizon called as aPaaS – Application Platform as a Service.

This technology enables enterprises to create better, cheaper and faster applications with very little code. This is going to be a big boost of developers who are constantly required to deliver top quality code in minimal time. This single technology can enable building visually immersive experiences across web, iOS and Android and engaging chatbots. Not just that, it provides full control over the application code and development experience for developers.

This platform is called Progress Kinvey Studio. In this webinar we will introduce what is aPaaS and Kinvey.

The webinar details are as follows:

When: Thursday, Sept 19 2019, 15:00 – 16:00 hrs (IST)

Register here:

Presenter: Mr. Abhishek Kant, CEO, GTM Catalyst Pvt Ltd

Who should attend: Project Managers, Developers and CTOs

In the webinar Mr. Abhishek will go over:

*Understand aPaaS concepts
*Visual designer for building apps in a matter of minutes
*Write custom logic and UI to finetune the digital experience
*Round-trip code editing (legible code, and editing in your tool of choice) Code portability (no vendor lock-in)
*Enterprise data and authentication integration (use existing data sources)
*Access to cutting-edge features like Augmented Reality and Chatbots
*Simultaneous web, iOS, and Android development

In the Telerik tradition, we will be giving out 3 T-Shirts to top engaged participants at the webinar.

See you at the webinar!

Code-less way to authenticate to Azure Resource Manager API from Azure App Services

This is a guest post by Sujay Sarma:

Typical examples that show you how to connect from a web application to Azure Resource Manager API have you wading through configuring and meddling with OAuth and Owin, not to mention getting you confused between ADAL, MSAL and the different types of Active Directory tenants offered by Azure. We do not need ANY of that, especially if your web application is going to live on as an Azure App Service.

Teeth gnashing? Mouth Salivating?

dreamstime_xl_43928193The short answer is to use “Azure App Service Authentication”. And it is nothing new. It has been around since at least November 2014 (wow! a little over four years since!). At least for me, though I have seen it plenty of times while configuring my App Services in Azure, I have scarcely looked at what it can do. Until now.

A project I was working on for a client required authenticating Azure subscribers to the portal. Initially, I went with the regular walkthroughs. I went into my Azure Active Directory blade and under App Registrations, created a new app, secrets and so on. But I faced really strange issues: There were no issues for me (developer never faces issues and has zero bugs on their dev box, yeah?). But my client contact could not login. He was using a Hotmail login address. I had to add him as a Guest User in my Active Directory tenant! That was not going to be a viable action plan for any further step of the project.

The problem, I determined, was that folks on my tenant could log in, but not others. Strangely, another friend was able to login — his account was a custom domain hosted within another Azure Active Directory Tenant (he was using his Organization ID and apparently they were Azure subscribers as well).

So, I tried to use Azure B2C. This is an poorly documented system, where the current documentation and the portal’s user experience are so different. Not only that, there is a lot of confusing terminology used in the documents — and you have to register “apps” in at least three places, not to mention the Web App I was trying to configure! Short story: It was a mess!!!

I told everybody I was giving up on the issue. We would find some “manual” way to get people to authenticate. That was when, an unrelated Google search threw up the page on App Service Authentication. I sent the URL to my mobile to read it during dinner and turned off my computer for the day. Even after I had read the article in question, I only thought of writing a small POC to see what it could do. The next morning, I sat down to set it up. And boy, oh boy! was I in for a pleasant surprise!

To save people the trouble of having go through the same trial and error I did, here is a concise walkthrough of how to do it. I must thank Chris Gillum, whose 2016 blog post clued me into the right course correction to get everything working.

The Walkthrough

  1. Log in to the Azure Portal.
  2. If it is already on the menu on your left/right hand-side, use that. Otherwise, click “All Services” and search there. Go into Azure Active Directory”. If you’re having a hard time chasing it down, click here to go there directly (you maybe prompted to login).
  3. Now click on the “App registrations (Preview)” item. The official documentation follows the flow of going into the other “App registrations” — do not do that, that will end up giving you “OAuth v1.0” tokens. We need “OAuth v2.0” tokens. I found this out by trial and error. Click here to go to the right blade.
  4. Open a Notepad window.
  5. Along the top of the applications view, find the button that says “Endpoints” and click that. Towards the bottom of the pane full of URLs, find the one that says “WS-Federation sign-on endpoint” (third from the bottom at this time). Copy that FULL address and paste it into your Notepad. Now, in Notepad, carefully delete the “/wsfed” from the end of that address — be careful not to delete anything before the “/”. To be safe, you can hit CTRL+H, in Find, type “/wsfed”, leave Replace as blank and hit “Replace All”.
  6. Now hit “+ New Registration”. Enter any name. Be aware that what you enter here will be shown in big bold letters when Azure later asks the user trying to login for consent (the “…. is asking you for permission to access…” UI). Select the option “Accounts in any organizational directory”. Leave the “Redirect URI” blank for now, we will come back to it later. Click on Register.
  7. Once the Azure Portal tells you that the application was deployed successfully, find it again in the same “App Registrations (Preview)” screen and click on it to enter it.
  8. From the overview page, find the “Application (client) ID”. It will be a Guid. Hover on the value to make the “copy” icon appear. Click it to copy it.
  9. Switch to your Notepad window, type in “App ID”, hit ENTER and paste what you copied on step 7.
  10. OPTIONAL. Back on the Azure Portal, go into “Branding” and upload a logo. a picture of size 48×48 pixels works best. Anything else will cause the consent screen to appear in strange shapes and sizes. What you enter into the various URL fields there is not relevant — they will be used to show information links at the bottom of the consent screen. You may leave them blank or enter valid URLs into them — they need not even be on your website!
  11. IMPORTANT. Go into “Certificates & Secrets”. Under the “Client secrets” heading, click “+ New client secret”. Enter a name (does not matter, it is for your convenience), select an expiry value (“Never” is all you need). Click Add. When the new password is generated, it will be shown there. Again, hover on the value under the “VALUE” heading to make the little icon appear and copy it (if you don’t copy it fully, you will be in a world of pain).
  12. Switch to your Notepad window, type in “Secret”, hit ENTER and paste what you copied in step 10.
  13. IMPORTANT. Go into “API Permissions”. Click on “+ Add a permission”. Select “Microsoft Graph” (at the time of writing this, it is a large banner like button right on top of the list that appears). Select “Delegated Permissions”. Check ON: email, offline_access, openid and profile. Scroll to the bottom and find “User”, expand it and check ON “User.Read”. Click “Add permissions” at the bottom.
  14. Now click the “+ Add a permission” again. This time, select “Azure Service Management” (there are many similar looking “Azure” permissions on the list, select the right one). There is only one permission at this time, select it (or select “user_impersonation” if you find more permissions when you’re reading this!). Click “Add permissions” at the bottom.
  15. Right-click on the “App Services” menu item on the navigation (or find it under “All Services”) and select to open it in a new tab — you need to come back to the settings you were working with so far — we are not done there yet! Anyway, end up here.
  16. NOTE: If you already have an app service that you are configuring this for, you can use that. Otherwise, create a new app service. There is nothing special to be done there — and you don’t need to upload any code YET. Once you have selected the app service or created one, continue below.
  17. Select the App Service, open its Authentication/Authorization blade. Set the “App Service Authentication” option to “On”. Immediately a bunch of options will appear below it.
  18. We are only interested in the “Azure Active Directory” option in this walkthrough. So select that. A new blade will open.
  19. Select “Advanced”. A different set of options will appear under it.
  20. For “Client ID”, paste the value pasted under “App ID” from your Notepad window.
  21. Under “Issuer Url” paste the URL you pasted from Step 5 above (it will look like “…&#8221;).
  22. Under “Client Secret”, paste in the value under “Secret” from your Notepad window.
  23. Now, this is very important. Under “Allowed Token Audiences”, first paste in “;, tab out. Another text box will appear. Now paste in “; (ensure the final “/” are there). This tells the system to get you the Bearer Tokens that will work with the Azure REST API 🙂 This is the secret magic sauce to the whole thing!
  24. Click OK.
  25. Back on the “Authentication / Authorization” blade, select one of “Allow Anonymous requests (no action)” or “Login with Azure Active Directory”. If you plan to show a “Sign in” link on your website — that is, you want the user to see something before they need to login, then use the “Allow Anonymous requests (no action)” option. If like with the Azure Portal, you want them to be signed in from the get-go, use the “Login with Azure Active Directory” option.
  26. Ensure “Token Store” (bottom of the page, under “Advanced settings”) is “On”.
  27. Click “Save” on top of the page to save everything.
  28. IMPORTANT CAVEAT: If at any point of time, you make changes to this set up, you will need to Restart your App Service before it will use the new values.
  29. Go into the “Overview” blade of your App Service. Wait for all the properties on the top panel to load, and copy the full value of the “URL” (“;). Note how this is “https” ?
  30. Now go back to the Azure Directory screen — if you left it open in another tab or window at the end of step 14, switch to that tab. Otherwise, navigate to it from the menu, or click here.
  31. Ensure you are within the Azure Directory Application (the one you configured from step 3 to 14).
  32. Click into the “Authentication” tab.
  33. Under “Redirect URIs”, ensure “Web” is selected for “TYPE”, under “REDIRECT URI”, paste in the URL to the App Service (Step 29). At the end of this URL, paste in “/.auth/login/aad/callback” [be careful to paste in everything between the quotes]. Note that there is a dot (“.”) in front of “auth”. Your final URL should look like: ““.
  34. Scrolling down, under Advanced settings, paste/enter the Logout URL to make it thus: ““. Again, note the “.” in front of “auth”.
  35. Scrolling down, under “Implicit grant”, check ON both “Access tokens” and “ID tokens”.
  36. Click Save above.

Your Azure configuration is DONE.

From your App Service Code

Fire up Visual Studio, create a new web application. I am using a regular Web Forms application. You are free to do this in MVC or .NET Core or whatever. I am using Visual Studio 2019, and selected the “ASP.NET Web Application (.NET Framework)” option. If you are prompted to select the type of authentication — leave it as “No authentication”.

You do not need to install new NuGet packages! Azure App Service automatically fetches the right Bearer token for you (without any plumbing!). This is available to you in the Request Header “X-MS-TOKEN-AAD-ACCESS-TOKEN”. Fetch it from:

string token = Request.Headers[“X-MS-TOKEN-AAD-ACCESS-TOKEN”];

You can now pass this token to your AzureRM REST API calls. I do not use any of the Azure SDKs to talk to AzureRM, and write System.Net.HttpClient based GET/PUT/etc calls. My code to pull all the subscriptions for a logged in user now looks like this:

HttpRequestMessage request = new HttpRequestMessage(HttpMethod.Get, “;);

request.Headers.Authorization = new AuthorizationHeaderValue(“Bearer”, Request.Headers[“X-MS-TOKEN-AAD-ACCESS-TOKEN”]);

HttpResponseMessage response = await client.SendAsync(request);

Simple, huh?

The “Post Digital” Enterprise

choiceDigital Transformation has graduated from being a differentiating advantage to now being the price of admission. Enterprises must now use the data and experiences collected in the earlier phase and use powerful new technologies to innovate in their business models and personalize experiences for their customers.

According to a recently released Accenture Technology Vision 2019 report, nearly four in five (79 percent) of more than 6,600 business and IT executives worldwide  surveyed believe that digital technologies ― specifically social, mobile, analytics and cloud ― have moved beyond adoption silos to become part of the core technology foundation for their organization. Respondents were C-level executives and directors at companies across 27 countries and 20 industries, with the majority having annual revenues greater than US$6 billion.

5 technology trends identified in the report, that can provide the elusive competitive edge to the willing enterprise are as follows:

  1. DARQ Power: This newly coined phrase stands for distributed ledgers, artificial intelligence, extended reality and quantum computing (DARQ). Amongst these 41 percent of executives ranked AI as number one in terms of impact.
  2. Unlock new opportunities: Leverage data captured from interactions to deliver rich, individualized, experience-based relationships. More than four in five executives (83 percent) said that digital demographics give their organizations a new way to identify market opportunities for unmet customer needs.
  3. Human+ Worker: The typical employee is digitally savvy with two-thirds (71 percent) of executives believe that their employees are more digitally mature than their organization, resulting in a workforce “waiting” for the organization to catch up.
  4. Security Flow: Security is no more limited to enterprise boundaries. The interconnectedness between these connections increase companies’ exposures to risks. Only 29 percent of executives said they know their ecosystem partners are working diligently to be compliant and resilient with regard to security.
  5. Meet consumers at the speed of now: Direct digital access to customers and powerful analytics capabilities enable innovative personalization strategies. Six in seven executives (85 percent) said that the integration of customization and real-time delivery is the next big wave of competitive advantage.

The focus on personalisation as a differentiator is foremost in the report. I had highlighted a similar trend in an interview with Marketing with Maveriks podcast in Jan 2019.

From my universe, Sitefinity is a wonderful digital marketing tool that provides for static and dynamic personalisation across channels.

Have thoughts around where we are headed? Leave a comment below..

Awarded 10 Most Promising Machine Learning Solution Providers

We are pleased to share that GTM Catalyst has been awarded as “10 Most Promising Machine Learning Solution Providers” in India by CIOReview.CIOReviewMostPromising

Here is a brief introduction of the award by CIOReview Magazine:

CIOReview India presents a list of “10 Most Promising Machine Learning Solution Providers”. Being closely scrutinized by a distinct panel of judges including CEOs, CIOs, CXO, analysts and CIOReview editorial board, we believe these solution vendors can bridge the gap between businesses and solution providers that are transforming business processes through their significant offerings.

Few extracts from the feature:

The top use case for AI has been customer facing technologies like conversation chatbots. Acknowledging these needs Gurgaon headquartered GTM Catalyst provides customer facing AI solutions notably the conversational chatbots under the KatalystAI platform that have been utilized by industries such as medical institutions, consumer electronics,
and automobiles sector.

KatalystAI platform is a System of Intelligence for enterprises.

The KatalystAI platform of GTM Catalyst serves to augment the robust sales forecasting processes that exist within an organization by employing the latest Machine Learning algorithms like boosted decision trees and deep learning algorithms.

The entire feature can be downloaded from here.

How-To: Create Charts with Kendo UI with Remote Data

If you know jQuery, and want to include data vizualization elements in your web page without all the hassle, you are at the right place. In this post, we are going to give you a quick view of how Kendo works with jQuery to create a pie chart.

We will build a ratings pie chart, step by step. Final product is shown below.

1. API

We need access to an API which we can call to get our remote data in the form of json. An API like this:


which gives data in the form of json like this:

    category: "Asia",
    value: 53.8,
    color: "#9de219"
    category: "Europe",
    value: 16.1,
    color: "#90cc38"
    category: "Latin America",
    value: 11.3,
    color: "#068c35"
    category: "Africa",
    value: 9.6,
    color: "#006634"
    category: "Middle East",
    value: 5.2,
    color: "#004d38"
    category: "North America",
    value: 3.6,
    color: "#033939"

should do the work. The data must be a json or an array of json.

Note: If you’re the developer of the API, then make sure to modify the json to make it compatible with Kendo before sending it as response. Check out Kendo demos for more info.

2. Download

Now you need to download Kendo UI. There are several paid versions, and a free (trial) version. Trial is more than enough for trying it out.

Download Kendo UI for a trial period from here. You will have to sign up to download it.

3. Transport

Extract the downloaded ZIP archive to an easily accessible location. We are going to need it’s js and css folders.

4. Kickstart

Kickstart the project by creating a new folder, say kendo-pie. Copy the downloaded js and css folders in kendo-pie.

Now, create a new HTML file in kendo-pie, say index.html. This is our main webpage. The pie chart will reside here.

5. The HTML

Open index.html with your favourite text editor. Add some starter code.

Give it a title, say Overall Ratings. Link all the necessary js and css files, inside head.

Time to populate the body. Create a wrapper (div), with id overall. The actual chart element and it’s script will reside in this wrapper. Create the chart div inside the wrapper, with id chart. Give it some style with a style attribute.

The above goes inside body, and the whole thing up-to this point looks something like this:

6. The jQuery

Create a script element inside the wrapper, and add some starter jQuery code.

Inside the document-ready function, select the chart element with jQuery’s id selector, and apply kendoChart() method.

7. The Kendo

kendoChart() takes a configuration object as an argument. This configuration object is used to describe the chart and include data (local or remote) to be represented.

Let’s contsruct the configuration object:

  1. Add title property.

2. Add dataSource property: read and dataType.

3. Add seriesDefaults property.

4. Add series property: field and categoryField.

5. Add tooltip property.

kendoChart() method is ready. So is the script. Coding part is complete.

These were the basic steps to create a pie chart using jQuery and Kendo, mostly Kendo. Now, open index.html in browser, and you should see output as below.

I hope the above steps were helpful in giving you a basic idea about Kendo UI. It’s up to you now to tweak the chart however you want, or create a new element altogether.

Documentation on the customization options are available here, and demos here.

Authored by: Abhay Kumar.

How-To: Create Beautiful Charts with Kendo UI with Local Data

If you know jQuery, and want to include data-viz elements in your web page without all the hassle, you are at the right place. I am going to give you a gist of how Kendo works with jQuery to create robust data-viz elements.

We will build a ratings pie chart, step by step. Final product is shown below.

1. Download

First things first. You need to download Kendo UI. There are several paid versions, and a free (trial) version. Trial is more than enough for trying it out.

Download Kendo UI for a trial period from here. You will have to sign up to download it.

2. Transport

Extract the downloaded ZIP archive to an easily accessible location. We are going to need it’s js and css folders.

3. Kickstart

Kickstart the project by creating a new folder, say kendo-pie. Copy the downloaded js and css folders in kendo-pie.

Now, create a new HTML file in kendo-pie, say index.html. This is our main webpage. The pie chart will reside here.

4. The HTML

Open index.html with your favourite text editor. Add some starter code.

Give it a title, say Overall Ratings. Link all the necessary js and css files, inside head.

Time to populate the body. Create a wrapper (div), with id overall. The actual chart element and it’s script will reside in this wrapper. Create the chart div inside the wrapper, with id chart. Give it some style with a style attribute.

The above goes inside body, and the whole thing up-to this point looks something like this:

5. The jQuery

Create a script element inside the wrapper, and add some starter jQuery code.

Inside the document-ready function, select the chart element with jQuery’s id selector, and apply kendoChart() method.

6. The Kendo

kendoChart() takes a configuration object as an argument. This configuration object is used to describe the chart and include data (local or remote) to be represented.

Let’s contsruct the configuration object:

  1. Add title property.

2. Add legend property.

3. Add some defaults.

4. Add series properties: type of chart and local data.

5. Add tooltip property.

kendoChart() method is ready. So is the script. Coding part is complete. Wrapper should look like this.

These were the basic steps to create a pie chart using jQuery and Kendo, mostly Kendo. Now, open index.html in browser, and you should see output as below.

I hope the above steps were helpful in giving you a basic idea about Kendo UI. It’s up to you now to tweak the chart however you want, or create a new element altogether. There are loads available. Docs are available here, and demos here.

Note: This post is authored by Mr. Abhay Kumar, interning with GTM Catalyst (distributor of Telerik controls in India).

How-To: Connect Your Node.js App with SQL Server

Node.js is an exciting technology that has been widely adopted. For those starting out, one of the key requirements is the ability to connect node.js with an enterprise RDBMS such as MS SQL Server.

In this post, we will guide you through the process of connecting your Node.js app with SQL Server successfully, and hopefully, without any errors, doubts or confusions.

Let’s get started!

1. Download

Before getting started on the mission, we need a couple of things:

  1. SQL Server 2017 Express Edition* from here, and
  2. SQL Server Management Studio (SSMS) 17.8* from here.

I am assuming you have Node.js installed on your PC.

*Version number might differ.

2. Install

Installation is easy. Double-click the SQL Server installer downloaded earlier, named something like SQLServer2017-SSEI-Expr*.

*Again, version number might differ.

Click Basic, then click Accept, and finally click Install.

After successful installation, you are greeted with a final screen containing information like Instance Name, SQL Administrators, Features Installed, Version, and also locations of various things including helpful Resources.

A row of four buttons is present at the bottom, containing: Connect Now, Customize, Install SSMS, and Close.

Close is pretty obvious, and we don’t need to touch Customize.

a. Connect Now

An instance of SQL Server starts running in the background automatically after successful installation (until you stop it manually).

The Connect Now button is a way to connect to that instance without any login. You can execute T-SQL statements right in the terminal.

Press the button, a new SQLCMD terminal window will open up. Terminal is all yours. T-SQL away!

b. Install SSMS

The Install SSMS button will take you to the same download page mentioned in Download above.

If you didn’t download SSMS earlier, now is the time. And then, just install it. Simple install, no worries.

3. Configure

OK! It’s time for some configurations:

  1. Enable TCP/IP to allow remote connections, and
  2. Enable default login or create a new one.

The default login in SQL Server is sa, stands for System Administrator (aka, sysadmin). It is disabled by default (I don’t know why). You need to enable it, or create a new sysadmin login for yourself.

1. Enable TCP/IP to Allow Remote Connections

Search in Start Menu for SQL Server Configuration Manager. Open it.

You can see that SQL Server (SQLEXPRESS) service is running, and it’s Start Mode is Automatic. Like I said earlier.

If you observe the left pane, you are in SQL Server Services section. Expand SQL Server Network Configuration, and click on Protocols for SQLEXPRESS. You can see TCP/IP is disabled by default. Right-click and Enable it.

Now, we need to set the default TCP port, which for SQL Server is 1433. Double-click on TCP/IP. Click on IP Addresses tab. Scroll down to the bottom to reach IPAII section. Clear TCP Dynamic Ports field and leave it empty. Set TCP Port to 1433. Click OK.

Restart SQL Server (SQLEXPRESS) service, and you are done with first configuration. Onto next one!

2. Enable Default Login or Create a New One

Search in Start Menu for SQL Server Management Studio. Open it.

You are greeted with a dialog box to connect to the server. You have to connect via Windows Authentication because you don’t have a sysadmin login right now to connect via SQL Server Authentication. Exactly the point of this configuration. Click Connect.

On the left, there is an Object Explorer pane. Here you can manage your server: creating and deleting logins, creating and deleting databases, and loads of other admin things, so to say.

Let’s enable the sa login. Expand Security. Expand Logins. You can see a little red cross on sa’s icon. This shows that the login is disabled.

Double-click sa. In the left pane, click Status. Select Enabled under Login in Settings. Click General in the left pane, change password, and click OK. Bam! You have a sysadmin login now.

You can try re-connecting to the server with this newly enabled login, or the one you create. Click File > Disconnect Object Explorer to disconnect. Click File > Connect Object Explorer…, this time, selecting SQL Server Authentication in the Authentication drop-down menu. Enter sa as Login, and the password you chose earlier as Password.

If you want to create a new login:

  1. Connect to server, if not already.
  2. Expand Security in the left pane.
  3. Right-click Logins.
  4. Select New Login…
  5. Enter Login name.
  6. Select SQL Server authentication.
  7. Enter and re-enter Password.
  8. Click Server Roles in the left pane.
  9. Select sysadmin.
  10. Click OK.

You have successfully configured your SQL Server.


Nobody wants errors. But sometimes, they are inevitable. You may encounter one of the two errors when you are trying to connect your Node.js app with SQL Server:

  1. ESOCKET: TCP/IP is disabled. Perform first configuration to get rid of this error.
  2. ELOGIN: Unable to login. Perform second configuration to get rid of this error.

4. Connect

Let’s create the simplest Node.js app, and connect it to SQL Server.

Create a new folder, say node-sql. Execute npm init in this folder to create package.json.

We need a Node.js driver for SQL Server. tedious is one such driver. Execute:

npm install tedious --save

Create a new index.js file (which will be the main entry point for our app) in node-sql. Open index.js with your favourite text editor.

‘Require’ required modules in the app.

const Connection = require('tedious').Connection;
const Request = require('tedious').Request;

Create a configuration object (config) to be used while connecting to the database.

const config = {
  userName: 'sa', // update
  password: 'your_password', // update
  server: 'localhost',
  options: {
      database: 'SampleDB' // update

Use your preferred userName, password and database. Create new Connection object with the earlier created config object.

const connection = new Connection(config);

Try to connect to the database with newly created connection object.

connection.on('connect', function(err) {
  if (err) {
  } else {

Your simplest Node.js app looks like this:

const Connection = require('tedious').Connection;
const Request = require('tedious').Request;

const config = {
  userName: 'sa', // update
  password: 'your_password', // update
  server: 'localhost',
  options: {
      database: 'SampleDB' // update
const connection = new Connection(config);

connection.on('connect', function(err) {
  if (err) {
  } else {


node index.js

If you see this in console:


Congrats! You have successfully connected your Node.js app with SQL Server. If you are getting any errors, then refer the Errors section above.

I hope this article was helpful in giving you a quick overview of connecting your node.js application with MS SQL Server.

Note: This post is authored by Mr. Abhay Kumar, interning with GTM Catalyst (distributor of Telerik controls in India).

Angular + Kendo UI: DropDown Button

In our quest to beautifying the web, we present more “cool” UI available for the humble Kendo UI button.

The Kendo UI DropDownButton is a component that is available in {ButtonsModule} from

For using Kendo UI buttons, you need to install Kendo in your Angular application. To learn the process of installation, follow my previous article and make your Angular app ready.

Power up your Angular 5 Application with Kendo UI

You need to complete the Angular v5 app along with Kendo UI Buttons module before continuing with the following:

DropDownButton looks like the Button but when you click, it displays a popup list with items. DropDownButton also allows us binding a list or an array with multiple values from an Angular component.

If you have any Array like this in any Component and want to show this array’s values as a list of options in the DropDownButton, you can do that using the following code.

data: Array<any> = [{

text: ‘My Profile’

}, { text: ‘Friend Requests’ },

text: ‘Account Settings’ },

text: ‘Support’ },

text: ‘Log Out’ }];

Now, in app.component.html, add a Kendo DropDownButton.

Kendo DropDownButton has a property called “data” for binding the Options list with it.

<kendo-dropdownbutton [data]=“data”>
User Settings

Now, your DropDownButton must be something like the below image and when you click on it, it shows all options:

Events Binding with DropDownButton

DropDownButton provides Events like:

  1. Focus
  2. Blur
  3. Open
  4. Close
  5. itemClick

Let’s have a look at how you can use any of these step by step:

Step 1. Create an Event Handler function in your Component Class.

public onItemClick (): void {

console.log (‘item click’);


Step 2. Use Angular Event Binding with your DropDownButton in component HTML file.

<kendo-dropdownbutton [data]=“data” (itemClick)=“onItemClick ()”>

User Settings


Step 3. Serve your Angular app in the browser and click on any available option in the DropDownButton.

In a similar way, you can use more events of DropDownButton, as in the following code:





DropDownButton With Icon

To beatify your DropDownButton, use Icon along with Text using [icon] property of Kendo UI DropDownButton.
<kendo-dropdownbutton [data]=“data” [icon]=“‘gear'” (itemClick)=“onItemClick ()”>

User Settings


And it’ll be more attractive for your Client.

You can use other types of icons also like
FontAwsome or Image Icon, so as to make the buttons more eye-catching, For example:

  1. FontAwsome
    Just use the CSS of FontAwsome in your Angular App.


<kendo-dropdownbutton [iconClass]=“iconClass”>

  1. Image Icon

Update the Component with Image URL in any variable, like:


Now, use [imageUrl] in DropDownButton,

<kendo-dropdownbutton [data]=“data” [imageUrl]=“imgIconURL”>

Must checkout the
 built-in Kendo UI icons.

Popup Item Templates

This is really a best feature of DropDownButton. The Kendo UI DropDownButton provides options for setting the behavior of its popup and popup items with custom templates.

Step 1:

Add a new icon property and its value to your data array.
data: Array<any> = [{

text: ‘Cut’icon: ‘cut’ },

text: ‘Paste’icon: ‘paste’


Now, use <ng-template></ng-template> for custom template and decorate it as you want.

<kendo-dropdownbutton [data]=“data”>

class=“k-icon k-i-{{ dataItem.icon }}”></span>
<span>{{ dataItem.text }}</span>


Now, see the output. Well, it’s just awesome.

Data Binding with DropDownButton

The DropDownButton enables you to bind the data with DropDownButton in two ways:

  1. Primitive (strings and numbers).

    You can bind an array to the DropDownButton with string and numbers’ data called as Primitive, which we did in our previous examples.

data: Array<any> = [{

text: ‘Cut’

}, { text: ‘Paste’


If the text field in the data objects is named text, the DropDownButton gets its value automatically.

  1. Complex (data inside objects) type.

A Complex data type is just an object with multiple properties. The component extracts the text value from the data items and in this way, sets the text of the items in the popup. If the name of the property in data source is different from the text—for example, actionText — you have to set it as a [textField]. Here is an example –
data: Array<any> = [{

actionName: ‘Undo’icon: ‘undo’ },

actionName: ‘Redo’icon: ‘redo’ },

actionName: ‘Cut’icon: ‘cut’ },

actionName: ‘Copy’icon: ‘copy’ },

actionName: ‘Paste’icon: ‘paste’


Now, set [textField] to “‘actionName'”.

<kendo-dropdownbutton [data]=“data” [textField]=“‘actionName'”>



And Check the output:

We can add more properties like disabled, click, and more.

To set the enabled or disabled state of the DropDownButton, use disabled property. To set the icon of each item, use the icon, iconClass, and imageUrl properties of data items. To attach a function that will be called when the user clicks an item, set the click property of the data item.

  1. Disabled:

    Just add a new property “disabled: true” in the data object that you want to be Disabled. For example:

data: Array<any> = [{

actionName: ‘Undo’icon: ‘undo’ },

actionName: ‘Redo’icon: ‘redo’disabled: true },

actionName: ‘Cut’ icon: ‘cut’ },

actionName: ‘Copy’icon: ‘copy’ },

actionName: ‘Paste’icon: ‘paste’disabled: true


Now, your output must be something like the below image.

  1. Click:

Using Click Property of Data Items in DropDownButton, you can attach a function. Let us see how it’s work.

First, add a click property to the data object array.


actionName: ‘Undo’,

icon: ‘undo’,

click: (dataItem) => {

console.log(`Undo in process !!`);



And, serve your Angular app again.

Keyboard Shortcut/Navigation

Kendo UI DropDownButton supports many shortcuts to make it more user-friendly from keyboard only. The keyboard navigation of the DropDownButton is enabled by default.

DropDownButton supports the following keyboard shortcuts:

Enter & Space Opens the popup, or activates the highlighted item and closes the popup.
Alt + Down Arrow Opens the popup.
Alt + Up Arrow Closes the popup.
Esc Closes the popup.
Up Arrow & Left Arrow Sets the focus on the previously available item.
Down Arrow & Right Arrow Sets the focus on the next available item.

Earlier articles on using Kendo UI with Angular:

Tell me more: Kendo UI ButtonGroup in Angular v5 App